The Government of Iceland has announced various measures to mitigate the economic and societal effects of the coronavirus outbreak.
November 20, 2020.
The Government has decided to pay a special supplement over and above basic unemployment benefits next year, so as to support the large group of people whose income-linked unemployment benefits will expire in the next few months. The 2.5% supplement will be paid in addition to the 3.6% increase provided for in the 2021 fiscal budget proposal. With these increases, which total 6.2%, basic unemployment benefits will equal ISK 307,403 per month.
Increased payments for support of job-seekers’ children will be extended through the end of 2021, with a 6% supplement added to basic unemployment benefits for each child instead of the previous 4%. Moreover, a December supplement of just over ISK 86,000 will be paid to confirmed job-seekers.
Resilience subsidies will help society to be better prepared for the time when global economic activity opens up again. The resilience subsidies are a direct continuation of the revenue loss subsidies. They are intended to help companies maintain a minimum level of activity while the impact of the pandemic persists. The measure applies to all taxable entities that suffer at least a 60% loss of revenue, irrespective of their operational form. It applies as well to sole proprietors who conduct business activities under their own national ID number.
For entities suffering revenue losses between 60% and 80%:
- The maximum subsidy ranges up to ISK 400,000 per monthly full-time position equivalent
- Capped at ISK 2 million
For entities suffering revenue losses between 80% and 100%:
- The maximum subsidy ranges up to ISK 500,000 per monthly full-time position equivalent
- Capped at ISK 2.5 million
The subsidy amounts are based on operating expenses but may not exceed the amount of the revenue loss during the period in question.
In the case of substantial revenue losses suffered by sole proprietors or very small businesses whose operating expenses consist largely of their estimated salary, the entity is authorised to base operating expenses and the number of full-time position equivalents on figures from the same month in 2019.
Support for families with children
The means testing threshold in the child benefits system will be permanently raised, thereby ensuring that it changes with developments in the lowest wages in the labour market. This change will ensure that single parents with two children and a monthly income of ISK 350,000-580,000 will receive an annual increase of ISK 30,000 in child benefits, and that for a family whose combined monthly income is ISK 700,000-920,000, child benefits will be ISK 60,000 higher than they would be otherwise.
Support for disability pensioners and vulnerable groups
A one-time payment of ISK 50,000 will be made before 18 December to recipients of disability and rehabilitation pensions who are eligible for pensions during the year, in addition to the December supplement that is usually paid during the month. At the beginning of 2021, permanent changes will be made to the disability pension system. Internal reductions will be scaled down, and the lowest-paid disability pensioners will receive a supplement of nearly ISK 8,000 per month in addition to the planned 3.6% increase provided for in the fiscal budget proposal. The total increase in social security benefits for the lowest-paid disability pensioners will therefore be nearly ISK 20,000 at the turn of the year.
In addition, a range of mitigating measures will be adopted so as to strengthen vulnerable groups during the pandemic, and a response team on households’ financial position will be established. Members of the response team will include representatives from financial institutions, stakeholder groups, and the Debtors' Ombudsman.
Further information on the Government measures can be found here:
Resilience: Strengthening Iceland’s Foothold – measures announced 20 November 2020 (In Icelandic)
Governmental Economic and Social Measures from Spring 2020
- Government of Iceland announces increased support for companies and extension of part-time unemployment benefits (April 28th)
- Government of Iceland Announces Second Phase of Economic Response Package to the COVID-19 Crisis (April 21st)
- Resilience: strengthening Iceland’s foothold: Second package of Government measures
in response to the COVID-19 pandemic
- Icelandic Government announces 1.6bn USD response package to the COVID-19 crisis (March 21st)
In order to slow down the spread of the coronavirus and to protect vulnerable groups, the Icelandic health authorities have introduced measures such as social distancing, ban on large gatherings, widespread testing as well as tracing infections.
- COVID-19: Restrictions on sizes of gatherings and certain school activities applying from 20 October 2020 (October 21th)
- Stricter rules to combat infection in the metropolitan area (October 7th)
- Changes to the rules on gathering sizes and schools (October 5th)
- Seating requirement in all licensed premises (September 25th)
- Closure of bars and night-clubs extended to 27 September (September 21st)
- Temporary closure of bars and night-clubs in metropolitan area (September 18th)
- Less stringent restrictions on gatherings take effect on 7 September (September 4th)
- New advertisement: Restrictions on the size of gatherings due to the COVID-19 pandemic (August 27th)
- New rules on quarantine, isolation and screening at the border (August 18th)
- Double border screening for all arriving passengers (August 14th)
- Modified rules on restrictions on public gatherings take effect on 14 August (August 12th)
- Iceland takes precautionary measures (July 30th)
- Further easing of restrictions announced (July 23th)
- Revised list - residents of twelve non-EEA and Schengen states allowed to visit Iceland (July 16th)
- Travellers from Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Germany to be exempt from screening and quarantine requirements (July 14th)
- Residents of fourteen non-EEA and Schengen states allowed to visit Iceland (July 13th)
- Icelanders and residents in Iceland to take special precautions after arriving in Iceland (July 10th)
- COVID-19: Decision on revised border screening regulations (July 3th)
- Few active COVID-19 cases found in border tests - new cases in line with what was expected (July 1st)
- Travel restrictions for residents of 15 countries to be lifted soon (June 30th)
- Price for border screening decreases (June 26th)
- Easing of restrictions on gatherings on 15 June (June 16th)
- Travellers to be tested at border - Science to guide path to the easing of travel restrictions (June 15th)
- Changes in travel restrictions until 1 July (June 12th)
- Regulation on quarantine, isolation and testing for COVID-19 at the border (June 12th)
- Testing for international arrivals to start on 15 June (June 2nd)
- Easing of restrictions on gatherings (May 25th)
- Iceland eases restrictions - all children's activities back to normal (May 6th)
- Iceland Introduces Temporary Schengen Border Controls and 14-day Quarantine for International Arrivals (April 22nd)
- Restrictions to be gradually lifted starting 4 May (April 14th)
- Strict measures to contain the spread of Covid-19 in Iceland (March 25th)
- Stricter measures enforced in Iceland: Ban on gatherings of more than 20 people (March 22nd)
- Stricter measures to slow down the spread of COVID-19 (March 13th)
- Ministry of Health, Ministry for Foreign AffairsInteroperable European COVID-19 vaccination certificate for travellers 04.06.2021
- Ministry of HealthCovid-19: Substantial easing of restrictions on gatherings from 25 May21.05.2021
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsCOVID-19: Border measures extended to 15th of June21.05.2021
- Ministry of Health, Ministry for Foreign AffairsCOVID-19: Borders – New list of areas and countries that are considered high-risk15.05.2021
- Ministry of Health, Ministry for Foreign AffairsCOVID-19: Borders - revised criteria for the definition of high-risk areas06.05.2021
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of JusticeBan on unnecessary travel from high-risk areas27.04.2021
- Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Transport and Local Government, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsCOVID-19: Temporary introduction of stricter border measures 20.04.2021
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Relaxation of restrictions on gatherings and in schools from 15 April13.04.2021
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Border measures - amended requirements for quarantine 09.04.2021
- Ministry of Health, Ministry for Foreign AffairsCOVID-19: Spain removed from the list of countries identified as risk zones31.03.2021
- Ministry of Justice, Ministry for Foreign AffairsRegulation exempting vaccinated non-Schengen travellers from travel restrictions to come into force on 6 April25.03.2021
- Ministry of Health, Ministry for Foreign AffairsStricter COVID-19 measures at the Icelandic border23.03.2021
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsExemption from border measures for vaccinated individuals to be extended to non-Schengen countries16.03.2021
- Ministry of Education Science and Culture, Ministry of Health, Prime Ministers Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsSignificant easing of domestic restrictions in Iceland to take effect tomorrow 23.02.2021
- Ministry for Foreign AffairsForeign Minister Thórdarson addressed the 46th Regular Session of Human Rights Council23.02.2021
- Ministry of Health, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsTravelers required to present negative PCR test before boarding 16.02.2021
- Ministry of Health COVID 19: Cautious easing of restrictions on gatherings as from 8 February05.02.2021
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of HealthCOVID 19: Digital vaccine certificates25.01.2021
- Ministry of Health, Prime Ministers Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsCovid-19 screening mandatory for arriving passengers until spring15.01.2021
- Ministry of HealthCOVID 19: Children entering Iceland required to enter quarantine as from 13 January12.01.2021
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Relaxations to the restrictions on gathering sizes to apply from 13 January08.01.2021
- Ministry of HealthCOVID 19: Contract signed with Janssen covering vaccine for 235,000 people22.12.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID 19: Activities in schools in the new year under new regulations22.12.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Restrictions to be relaxed from 10 December08.12.2020
- Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsBorder measures to be reviewed by 15 January21.11.2020
- Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Transport and Local Government, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Finance and Economic AffairsResilience: strengthening Iceland’s foothold – Resilience subsidies and support for job-seekers, old-age pensioners, families with children, and vulnerable groups20.11.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID 19: Screening at the border temporarily free of charge18.11.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Relaxation of restrictions on gatherings take effect on 18 November13.11.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Restrictions applying in schools and universities as from 3 November 202002.11.2020
- Ministry of HealthStricter anti-COVID-19 measures taking effect as from 31 October 202030.10.2020
- Ministry of Industries and Innovation, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Finance and Economic AffairsIcelandic measures for remote workers put in place27.10.2020
- Ministry of Finance and Economic AffairsFitch Ratings Affirms Iceland´s ratings at A, outlook negative23.10.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Restrictions on sizes of gatherings and certain school activities applying from 20 October 202021.10.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Stricter rules to combat infection in the metropolitan area 07.10.2020
- Prime Minister's OfficeWhat will the future look like beyond COVID-19?28.09.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Seating requirement in all licensed premises25.09.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Closure of bars and night-clubs extended to 27 September21.09.2020
- Ministry of HealthCOVID-19: Temporary closure of bars and night-clubs in metropolitan area18.09.2020
- Ministry of HealthQuarantine shortened from 14 days to 7, ending with a test14.09.2020
- Ministry of HealthNew advertisement: Restrictions on the size of gatherings due to the COVID-19 pandemic27.08.2020
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Industries and Innovation, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Transport and Local Government, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsDouble border screening for all arriving passengers14.08.2020
- Ministry of HealthModified rules on restrictions on public gatherings take effect on 14 August12.08.2020
- Ministry of Health, Ministry for Foreign AffairsFurther easing of restrictions announced23.07.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of JusticeRevised list - residents of twelve non-EEA and Schengen states allowed to visit Iceland16.07.2020
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Industries and Innovation, Ministry for Foreign AffairsTravellers from Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Germany to be exempt from screening and quarantine requirements14.07.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of HealthIcelanders and residents in Iceland to take special precautions after arriving in Iceland10.07.2020
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Industries and Innovation, Ministry for Foreign AffairsTravellers to be tested at border - Science to guide path to the easing of travel restrictions15.06.2020
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Industries and Innovation, Ministry of Justice, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsInformation for travellers arriving in Iceland from 15 June 202008.06.2020
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Industries and Innovation, Ministry of Justice, Ministry for Foreign AffairsInformation for travellers arriving in Iceland from 15 June 202005.06.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of HealthTesting for international arrivals to start on 15 June02.06.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of HealthReport of the working group on COVID-19 testing for international arrivals26.05.2020
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Industries and Innovation, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Transport and Local Government, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsTesting for international arrivals could start in June12.05.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs276 million ISK in response to COVID-19 in developing countries08.05.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of HealthIceland eases restrictions - all children's activities back to normal06.05.2020
- Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Social Affairs, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Finance and Economic AffairsGovernment of Iceland announces increased support for companies and extension of part-time unemployment benefits28.04.2020
- Ministry of Justice, Ministry of HealthIceland Introduces Temporary Schengen Border Controls and 14-day Quarantine for International Arrivals22.04.2020
- Ministry of Transport and Local Government, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Finance and Economic AffairsGovernment of Iceland Announces Second Phase of Economic Response Package to the COVID-19 Crisis21.04.2020
- Ministry of Finance and Economic AffairsAgreement on guarantee of credit institutions’ supplemental loans to businesses17.04.2020
- Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of HealthRestrictions to be gradually lifted starting 4 May 14.04.2020
- Ministry of Industries and InnovationNordic cooperation vital post COVID-1914.04.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Health, Prime Minister's OfficeCovid-19 epidemic receding in Iceland - 295 new infections in the past seven days and 363 recoveries09.04.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs Assisting Icelanders returning home 26.03.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Industries and Innovation, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of HealthStrict measures to contain the spread of Covid-19 in Iceland25.03.2020
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsStricter measures enforced in Iceland: Ban on gatherings of more than 20 people 22.03.2020
- Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, Ministry of Transport and Local Government, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry for Foreign AffairsIcelandic Government announces 1.6bn USD response package to the COVID-19 crisis21.03.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Ministry of JusticeIceland implements Schengen and EU travel restrictions 20.03.2020
- Ministry for Foreign AffairsCOVID-19 update 18.03.2020
- Ministry for Foreign AffairsRegional solidarity stressed at Nordic and NB8 conference call17.03.2020
- Ministry of Finance and Economic AffairsRegarding issuance of Government securities 17.03.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of HealthLarge scale testing of general population in Iceland underway15.03.2020
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Health Icelanders advised not to travel abroad14.03.2020
- Ministry of Education Science and Culture, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Justice, Ministry for Foreign AffairsStricter measures to slow down the spread of COVID-19 13.03.2020
- Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Transport and Local Government Economic response to COVID-19 10.03.2020
- Ministry of Health, Ministry of Industries and Innovation, Ministry of Justice, Ministry for Foreign AffairsResponse to COVID-19 in Iceland09.03.2020
Impact on Gender Equality
The Government of Iceland has announced various measures to mitigate the economic and societal effects of the COVID-19 outbreak. The information below explains those measures with a special focus on measures aimed at promoting gender equality.
Reducing the spread of COVID-19 in Iceland
Actions on violence against women and children
It is a well-known fact that domestic violence, and especially by men against women and children, increases in pandemics such as COVID-19. The likelihood of domestic violence becomes even greater when women and children are isolated in their households with abusive men. According to the latest statistics from the Reykjavik Metropolitan Office in Iceland, reports of domestic violence increased by 14% since the outbreak of COVID-19. However, evidence from municipalities and professionals working in the field indicates that the increase is probably higher, as victims of domestic violence do not necessarily seek help immediately. Reports of sexual violence to the Reykjavík Metropolitan Police have however decreased by 48% during the first eight months of the year compared to the average of last three years.
One of the government’s most important measure to prevent violence has been the effort to limit the social impact of restrictions to contain the virus. Pre-primary and compulsory schools have remained open and at no point has a lock-down been imposed. Services for victims and perpetrators of violence have also remained open and adjusted their services to the containment restrictions.
Violence prevention measures
- A violence prevention task force was put in place in order to manage and coordinate the implementation of violence prevention measures
- The National Emergency Number 112 has been reinforced and developed to better accommodate reports of domestic violence and violence against children. The 112 website will become an overall forum for information on available services provided by public, non-governmental and private entities.
- New option of online chats with an emergency dispatcher.
- An experimental women’s refuge opened in Akureyri.
- Increased support to vulnerable children that are considered likely to resort to violence. A team within the Reyjavík Metropolitan Police works with young perpetrators and educational material distributed among young people.
- An awareness-raising campaign against domestic violence was launched, resources were made more visible on social media, education was increased and information was disseminated widely. An action team was appointed to direct and coordinate the implementation of measures against violence.
- The task force is developing proposals of further actions regarding perpetrators, accommodation for survivors, violence prevention and education to parents, children and young people as well as actions to prevent violence against people with disabilities. Special focus is on developing technical solutions for while restrictions are in place and that can continue to be used after the pandemic.
Financial aid for non-governmental organisations and municipalities
- The Women's Shelter received a grant of ISK 100 million in the government's first action package for COVID-19. Stígamót, a counseling and support centre for people who have been sexually abused, received ISK 20 million in response to increased demand for the centre’s services, thereby reducing waiting times for services.
New procedures for domestic violence cases
- The National Police Commissioner improved work procedures and increased specialised police training to handle the increase in domestic violence.
Impact on health
- Statistically men are more likely to become seriously ill due to COVID-19. Women are generally under more stress due to increased care and home responsibilities and are more likely to stand in the front line in demanding work related to the epidemic. This is often stressful, low-paid work, where the rewards are not commensurate with the risk.
- Women are more likely to perform basic service work during the COVID-19 epidemic and are therefore more exposed to infection. Women working in the healthcare sector are generally in closer proximity with patients than men working in the same sector. Such gender division within the health sector is well known and the same pattern exists in most European countries. Strain on the healthcare system and other restrictions have far-reaching effects and can result in cutbacks to services, e.g. for pregnancy and maternity care, which affect women more than men.
Protective equipment and wage premiums
- Personal protective equipment has been provided for healthcare workers and they are being screened more closely for infection.
- ISK 1 billion was set aside for special risk compensation payments to employees of hospitals and healthcare institutions who work under heavy strain. The payments were in the form of one-off payments to front-line workers in the healthcare system.
Focus on maternity and childbirth services
- Special attention has been paid to women’s healthcare and to maintain pregnancy and childbirth services and post-natal care.
- A decision was made to examine the health of Icelanders from a gender and equality perspective, to assess whether healthcare service provision takes the different needs of women and men into consideration.
Impact on paid and unpaid work
As a result of the gendered labour market in Iceland, when services are reduced women are more likely to be forced out of paid work to care for children than men. The impact is especially great on single parents. Furthermore, grandparents are not able to help families during COVID-19 as would normally be common, due to their higher risk of infection, and this increases the burden even further. On a national level unemployment is slightly higher among women than men but there are regional differences and unemployment is higher among women in all parts of the country except the capital area where it is slightly higher among men. The greatest gender difference is in Suðurnes, where unemployment is much higher among women than men.
Schools remain open
- Front-line jobs that are considered basic services in COVID-19 cannot be performed remotely. This makes it difficult for people to deal with the closing of pre-primary and compulsory schools etc.
- Pre-primary and compulsory schools have therefore been kept open with certain restrictions and workers in front-line and crucial jobs have been given more extensive access to such facilities for their children.
Grants have been awarded for the care of disabled and chronically ill children, if sevices normally provided are closed. Social and financial support for families can help relieve the burden of unpaid care work that women are much more likely to do.
The impact of the Government’s economic measures on men and women varies due to their different economic situation.
Individuals and families
- The gender distribution of applicants for partial payment of salaries for those in reduced work positions benefit roughly corresponds to the proportions of men and women in the labor market.
- Older analyses have shown, however, that on average men generally receive a higher proportion of income-related unemployment benefits than women, even after adjusting for the gender ratio of unemployment benefit recipients.
- As payments up to ISK 400,000 per month are not subject to reduction or cut, the part-time salary benefit is likely to provide relatively more assistance to persons in lower-income jobs and thereby promote equality. However, it is important to continue to monitor the utilisation of this resource and its impact on women and men.
Special child benefit supplement
- All parents with dependent children have received a child benefit supplement. Those who received income-linked child benefits received a ISK 42,000 supplement while others received ISK 30,000.
- Women accounted for 56% of those who received child benefit supplements, while 59% of the total amount of supplementary benefitspaid was to women. Women were thus more likely to be entitled to the payment.
- This difference is largely explained by the gender distribution of single parents. 90% of single parents who received supplementary child benefits are women and 96% of them received the higher amount while 86% of single fathers did.
Withdrawal of private pension savings
- Men's premiums are considerably higher than women's, men are more likely than women to be able to take advantage of this option and withdraw higher amounts.
- In 2020 it is estimated that women will withdraw 35% of the total amount and men 65%. On average women make up 39% of those making withdrawals and their average monthly withdrawal is 14% lower than that of men.
Job search activity and summer resources for students
- Additional funding was provided to the Student Innovation Fund due to COVID-19 and 426 summer jobs were created for students. The jobs were divided almost equally between men and women.
- Jobseekers will be able to begin a course of study and receive full unemployment benefits for one semester beginning with the spring semester of 2021. The initiative is limited to vocational and technical studies at upper secondary school or university, compensatory education or academic upgrading, for example in healthcare and teaching. These study programmes do not seem to attract men and women equally, and it is therefore possible that it could result in unequal utilization of resources and lead to different subsequent income opportunities for men and women.
Progress in innovation
- Fewer women than men apply for government-sponsored competitive funding, and additionally, women often apply for lower amounts. The rate of success between women and men is, however, is similar in most funds.
- Increased contributions to the competitive funds are therefore likely to be more beneficial for men than women, if the needs and qualities of women entrepreneurs are not considered specifically.
- New competitive funds have been set up as part of measures to address the impact of COVID-19. The boards of the funds have agreed on gender equality goals for allocations, which are likely to help equalise the effects of the grants on women and men.
- An allocation from the Technology Development Fund distributed during the summer of 2020 resulted in male applicants receiving ISK 180 million (75%) and women ISK 60 million (25%).
- When formulating conditions for grants to firms for redundancy payments, self- and part-time employment were not excluded because women are much more likely than men to perform such work.
- Two-thirds of grants distributed after the first wave of Covid-19 went to private health care providers, dentists, physiotherapists, hairdressers and beauty salons but women make up the majority of workers in all these sectors.
- Based on the gender ratio of workers in the industries that will benefit from the investment programme after the first wave, it can be assumed that 85-90% of the jobs created during the construction period will be done by men.
The new projects or improvements to existing infrastructure will in most cases not have a major impact on the number of future employees involved. The projects are therefore either not considered as positively impacting or likely to promote equality by increasing the number of jobs done by women or providing improved services that could reduce unpaid care work.
Expansion of the “Everybody works/wins” campaign
- It can be assumed that the vast majority of jobs resulting from the increase in the VAT refund rate for construction, renovation or maintenance of residential housing as well as car repairs will be done by men, as more than 95% of those working in auto maintenance, construction trades and civil engineering are men.
- A programme to reimburse VAT for domestic assistance or regular care of residential housing is more likely to create paid work for women, as more women than men work in this field. It may also improve the legal status of those working in this area as well as reduce unpaid housework which is mostly done by women.
Economic impact - Containment measures
In August 2020 the Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs appointed a working group, entrusted with the task of analysing the economic impact of different options for epidemic containment measures. The Minister’s letter of appointment required that the analysis take into account, among other things, “the interests of different groups in society and sectors of the economy" and that in addition to short-term effects an assessment be made of the ability of the economy “to make a strong recovery once the epidemic and its effects had passed”. The Minister requested the group's first report be delivered by 13 September 2020.