Research shows that some 40,000 km2 in Iceland - around 39% of the entire country - is subject to considerable or extensive soil erosion. Soil conservation efforts, including land reclamation, aim at stopping the destruction of vegetation and land erosion which threatens natural and other resources and improving ecosystems which have deteriorated. Land reclamation is important for nature conservation, as the degradation of land reduces biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Immoderate utilisation of ecosystems lowers their productivity.
The Soil Conservation Service of Iceland is responsible for various soil conservation projects and programs. The agency itself carries out specialised work aimed at stopping the destruction of vegetation and soil erosion. In addition, it collaborates with individuals, NGOs and corporations in a wide variety of land reclamation projects. Examples of such projects are Farmers Heal the Land and the Land Improvement Fund.