Control of goods, services and investments of strategic significance
Iceland controls certain exports on the basis of various international obligations. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) is responsible for export control in Iceland. It sets policy and issues export authorisations. The MFA grants three types, individual, general and global. In most cases goods of strategic significance are found on lists published on the basis of the Act on Control of Services and Items that have Strategic Significance Act No 58/2010, as amended.
The fee for export authorisations is ISK 2,500 (as of September 2019, see Article 11 (50) of the Treasury Supplementary Income Act No 88/1991), to be paid with the application. A transfer can be made to the MFA's account 0303-26-000269 - 670269-4779. A receipt should be attached to the application. Applications for export authorisations should be sent to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Iceland is part of the European Economic Area (EEA) and therefore part of the EU Internal Market. It has adopted the EU export control legislation, including the European Code of Conduct on Arms Exports (2008/944/CFSP). Certain stipulations on arms transfers are part of the EEA (see Directive 2009/43 below). International obligations are based, inter alia, on the UN Charter, the Chemicals Weapons Agreement of 1992, the Arms Trade Treaty, the EEA Agreement and Iceland's participation in export control regimes, the Australian Group (Chemical and Biological Weapons), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). Iceland has submitted an application for participation in the Wassenaar Arrangement dealing with conventional weapons and dual-use items. Iceland already implements its rules and guidelines.
Iceland is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and is a member of, participates in or supports export control related organisations and cooperation including the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Hague Code of Conduct against Missile Proliferation (HCOC), the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI), the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI).
- Defence-Related Products: See Regulation 800/2011 & EU Directive 2009/43 below
- Dual-Use Items: See Regulation 800/2011 & EU Regulation 428/2009 below
Customs and police authorities enforce export control legislation in co-operation with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Ministry controls exports before they take place through licensing, customs authorities screen customs declarations, police investigate breaches of export legislation, prosecutors prosecute cases before the regular courts.
Laws and Regulations
- Act on Control of Services and Items that may have Strategic Significance, No 58/2010, as amended until 5 July 2019
- Regulation on the Control of Services and Items that may have Strategic Significance No 361/2016e, with subsequent amendments 189/2017, 1012/2017, 994/2018 and 794/2019.
This regulation implements:
- DIRECTIVE 2009/43/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 6 May 2009 simplifying terms and conditions of transfers of defence-related products within the Community
- COUNCIL COMMON POSITION 2008/944/CFSP of 8 December 2008 defining common rules governing control of exports of military technology and equipment
- COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 428/2009 of 5 May 2009 setting up a Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items
Iceland supports international efforts in the area of non-proliferation through international co-operation (see below) and implementation of all international obligations in this area. As a member of the United Nations, Iceland implements all Security Council (UNSC) resolutions on arms embargos and non-proliferation. It sponsors and supports non-proliferation initiatives at the UN, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (Preparatory Commission - CTBTO) and other international fora. Iceland aligns itself with EU positions on non-proliferation on the basis of the EEA Agreement of 1992.
Selected WMD Conventions to which Iceland is a Party
- Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1996), entered into force for Iceland 26.6.2000
- Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (1993), entered into force 29.4.1997
- Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological Biological and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (1972), entered into force 26.3.1975
- Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (1971), entered into force 30.5.1972
- Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1968), entered into force 5.3.1970
- Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water (1963), entered into force 29.4.1964
Selected Nuclear Related Conventions to which Iceland is a Party
- Additional protocol to the safeguards agreement (2003), entered into force for Iceland 12.9.2003
- Joint convention on the safety of spent nuclear fuel management (1997), entered into force 27.4.2006
- Convention on nuclear safety (1994), entered into force 2.9.2008
- Convention on early notification of a nuclear accident (1986), entered into force 28.10.1989
- Convention on assistance in the case of a nuclear accident of radiological emergency (1986), entered into force 26.2.2006
- Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material (1980), entered into force 18.7.2002
- Safeguards Agreement in connection with the NPT (1972), entered into force 16.10.1974
- Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement in connection with the NPT (1972), entered into force 6.10.1974
- Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)
- European Union (EU)
- International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
- Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
- United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA)
- United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
- Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)
- Arms Trade Treaty (ATT)
- Anti-Personnel Landmine Convention (APLC)
- Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)
- Cluster Munitions Convention (CCM)
- Certain Conventional Weapons Convention (CCWC)
- Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE)
- Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)
- Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
- Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT)
- Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
- Treaty on Open Skies (OS)