Science, Research and Innovation
In 2015, total research and development (R & D) expenditures amounted to 2.2% of Iceland's GDP. Around one-third of these expenditures, or almost 0.8% of GDP, were carried out under the auspices of universities and public institutions. Strategien og handlingsplanen fra 2017-2019 har som mål at øge de samlede R & D-utgifter i Island til 3% af BNP.
The Science and Technology Policy Counciloperates under Act 2/2003 with the task of promoting scientific research, scientific education and technological development in Iceland, and formulating public policy in this regard for consecutive three-year periods. The Prime Ministers chairs the Council, whose members include the Minister of Education, Science and Culture, the Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs, the Minister of Industries and Innovation, and up to four other ministers, in addition to representatives of universities, the scientific community and the business sector.
The state's involvement in science, innovation and research involves four ministries. Science is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, in particular basic research, public support for scientific activities and international scientific co-operation. The Ministry of Industries and Innovation is responsible, among other things, for technical research and innovation, as well as for providing state support for research, development and innovation in industrial sectors as well as research on maritime and freshwater biospheres. The Ministry for the Environment and Natural Resources is responsible for environmental and energy research, while health care research is the province of the Ministry of Welfare.