Air quality is generally considered good in Iceland, despite the fact that some pollutants exceed the reference limits several times each year.
The weather is one of the main causes of pollutants exceeding limits. For example, on dry winter days with little wind air pollutants can collect up in the capital region, e.g due to traffic dust set in motion. Windy weather can also blow dry soil from the desert areas inland, which has sometimes caused heavy particulate pollution in South Iceland or even in areas more distant from its source, such as the capital region. High air pollution can have many causes and various factors can contibute to it.
Monitoring and supervision of air quality is mainly in the hands of the Environment Agency, which has metres at selected locations around Iceland. The Health Inspectorates of local authorities also play a role in monitoring and supervision of air quality.