Research and monitoring
There are several institutions responsible for research, monitoring and responding to changes of the Icelandic biota.
The Icelandic Institute of Natural History (IINH) conducts basic research on the zoology and botany of Iceland, handles systematic documentation of the nature and manages research findings and specimens in scientific collections. Thus, the IINH maintains databases on nature in Iceland and maintains a broad overview of nature conservation and natural resource allocation as well as providing advice and instruction thereon. It also has a broad monitoring and educational role.
The IINH compiles Red Lists for the biota of Iceland. The Red lists are inventories of biological species that are threatened or at risk of extinction and are crucial for nature conservation.
The Marine and Freshwater Research Institute (MFRI) conducts various marine and freshwater research and is responsible for monitoring marine and freshwater ecosystems. The main research priorities are research on marine and freshwater ecosystems, sustainable exploitation of main stocks, ecosystem approach to fisheries management, research on fishing technology and seafloor and habitat mapping. Based on this research and monitoring, MFRI provides the government with scientific advice on sustainable use and protection of marine and freshwater habitat.
The Environmental Agency of Iceland (EA) is responsible for the conservation process of sensitive areas in Icelandic nature and their habitat as well as monitoring of protected areas, other than Vatnajökull National Park and Thingvellir National Park.